|Iyusan Rice Terraces, Biliran Island|
Biliran has a total land area of 53,601 hectares (132,450 acres), making it the fourth smallest province in the Philippines. The island lies off the northern coast of Leyte island across Biliran Strait. To the southeast is Carigara Bay, to the northeast is the Samar Sea, and across this sea is Samar. To the west is the Visayan Sea and Masbate lies 30 kilometres (19 mi) to the northwest.
The province is composed of two major volcanic islands; Biliran Island and Maripipi Island. Other islands include Higatangan, and Dalutan Island (inhabited).
Maripipi Island is a 924-metre (3,031 ft) volcanic island with the Maripipi Volcano located in the center and the Municipality of Maripipi surrounding its shores and lower slopes. The volcano is classified as potentially active but has had no historical eruptions.
On April 8, 1959, Republic Act No. 2141 was signed into law effectively making Biliran a sub-province of Leyte. The island became an independent province on May 11, 1992, by virtue of Republic Act No. 7160, making it one of the newest provinces in the country.
Based on the May 2000 census, Biliran had a total population of 140,274, which made it the fifth least populous province in the country, and the smallest in the region. There were 27,907 households in the province with an average size of 5.02 persons, slightly higher than the national average of 4.99. In the 2010 census, the population had increased to 161,760 persons.
The inhabitants of Biliran primarily speak Cebuano and Waray, both Visayan languages. The majority of the residents also speak and understand Tagalog and English.